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anal squamous cell cancer is an uncommon malignancy caused by infection with oncogenic strains of human papilloma virus. Anal cancer is much more common in immunocompromised persons, including those infected with human immunodeficiency virus. anal intraepithelial neoplasia (ain) is a premalignant lesion for anal cancer. , human papilloma virus (hpv)human immunodeficiency virus infections, post-organ transplantation patients, and men who have sex with men) and development is driven by hpv infection. a population based, case-control study has shown that anal intraepithelial neoplasia is strongly associated with hpv infection. 3 it can present as part of a multifocal disease process involving any or all sites of anogenital cancer. 13 there are aetiological and clinical parallels between anal intraepithelial neoplasia, vulval intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (ain) is a premalignant lesion of the anal mucosa that is a precursor to anal cancer. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (cin), also known as cervical dysplasia, is the abnormal growth of cells on the surface of the cervix that could potentially lead to cervical cancer. More specifically, cin refers to the potentially precancerous transformation of cells of the cervix. Cin most commonly occurs at the squamocolumnar junction of the cervix, a transitional area between the. A multidisciplinary approach must be used in the management of anal cancer, including oncologists, general surgeons, radiologists, and specialist nurses. Chemo-radiotherapy is often the first choice treatment for anal tumours (expect from t1n0 carcinomas, whereby wide local excision surgical treatment is usually sufficient). Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (ain) what is anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Some specialists use an anal smear (the pap smear) test or look at the anal skin with a high-. The most commonly used treatments are surgical removal, laser or diathermy. If anal intraepithelial neoplasia is the anal squamous-cell carcinoma precursor, dr. Goldstone said, then by ablating hsil we hopefully will prevent progression to cancer. Ideally, he was looking for a procedure that was office-based, well tolerated with minimal time out of work, afforded acceptable recurrence rates, and able to be performed by non-surgeons.