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An anal pap smear is a screening test for anal cancer similar to a cervical pap smear looking for cervical cancer for women. How is an anal pap smear obtained? A small sample of cells is collected from the transitional area between the rectum and the anus with a small thin swab inserted in the anus and painlessly rubbed within the anal canal. Anal cancer screening and assessment is modeled after cervical cancer screening, which is based on early identification of squamous intraepithelial lesions (sil), follow-up to monitor for disease progression, and interventions to prevent disease progression and cancer (see the nysdoh ai guideline cervical screening for dysplasia and cancer). Hpv, anal dysplasia and anal cancer are not reportable in canada. 10 partner notification is not required as a public health measure, unlike with a diagnosis of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis or hiv. Treatment procedures vary based on whether or not signs of anal dysplasia or signs of precancerous changes are present. Early detection is very important as abnormal cells may be discovered and treated before anal cancer has a chance to develop. Procedures used for screening include anal pap smears high resolution anoscopy anal biopsy risk factors for developing anal cancer. Anal dysplasia can be found in anal warts or sometimes these changes are found incidentally at the time of unrelated anal surgery (i. Screening procedures available to detect anal dysplasia include anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy (hra). Screening should also ascertain risk factors for dysplasia, degree of immunosuppression, and history of prior anal disease. Although treatment options for anal dysplasia are limited by morbidity and high recurrence rates, early detection may permit better tolerance of therapy, and current estimates indicate that routine screening for the condition would be cost-effective. Screening for anal dysplasia associated with human papillomavirus anal dysplasia associated with human papillomavirus (hpv) infection occurs in substantial proportions of hiv-infected men and women and poses risk for anal carcinoma. Whether to routinely screen for hpv-associated anal dysplasia in this population, how-ever, remains a debated. More research regarding screening and the treatment of anal highgrade lesions needs to be done to reduce the risk of anal cancer, because multiple studies have reported an increased risk of anal dysplasia and cancer in recipients of solid organ transplants and patients with autoimmune and inflammatory bowel disease. 16 the data from the current study may be applicable to other. anal pap testing was more recently introduced in the 1990s with a similar methodology and grading scheme as a primary screening tool for a premalignant anal dysplasia. The technique has been well described and is analogous to the cervical pap test 52. Anal dysplasia screening what is anal dysplasia? Anal dysplasia is a condition in which some of the cells within the anus have transformed into abnormal cells. Anal dysplasia is not cancer, but it is a pre-cancerous condition. In other words, if the abnormal cells are left untreated, they can turn into cancerous tumors.