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The anal cancer foundation is currently supporting research studying vaccine-based immunotherapy treatments for patients with recurrent hpv-related cancers. The goals of this research are to identify targets on hpv-related cancers, including anal cancer, and to activate and train specific immune cells to selectively attack these targets on the cancer cells. A recent review of survival and recurrence in an unselected national norwegian cohort (n 328) over a 7-year observational period reinforced the finding that the current standard of concomitant chemoradiotherapy (based on the outcomes of 3 clinical trials) is very effective in anal cancer management 3, 4, 5, 6. These investigators reported curative outcomes in 87 of patients. Anal cancer recurrence is when cancer cells reappear after treatment, after a period of time during which no cancer was detectable. Recurrence can develop in the same area of the body, or can develop in other organs or tissues. When cancer returns after a period of remission, its considered a recurrence. Anal cancer treatment options include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, andor surgery. Get detailed information about newly diagnosed and recurrent anal cancer including risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment in this expert-reviewed summary. The type of treatment your cancer care team will recommend depends on the type of anal cancer, where it is, and how far it has spread (the stage). Most experts agree that treatment in a clinical trial should be considered for anal cancer that has spread beyond the anus or if standard treatment isnt working. This way you can get the best treatment available now and may also get the treatments. The following are treatment options for recurrent anal cancer. Your healthcare team will suggest treatments based on your needs and work with you to develop a treatment plan. Treatment options depend on if the cancer comes back in or near the anus (called local recurrence) or if it recurs in another part of the body farther from the anus (called distant metastasis). What is cancer recurrence? If cancer is found after treatment, and after a period of time when the cancer couldnt be detected, its called a cancer recurrence. The recurrent cancer might come back in the same place it first started, or it might come back somewhere else in the body. When cancer comes back after treatment, doctors call it a recurrence or recurrent cancer. Finding out that cancer has come back can cause feelings of shock, anger, sadness, and fear. But you have something now that you didnt have beforeexperience. Anal carcinoma in situ or early-stage cancer can often be treated by removing the abnormal cells and a small area of the surrounding healthy tissue, which is called a margin. Afterward, patients should regularly receive follow-up screening to watch for and remove any new abnormal cells.