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an anal fistula is an inflammatory tract between the anal canal and the skin. The 4 categories of fistulas, based on the relationship of fistula to sphincter muscles, are intersphincteric, transsphincteric, suprasphincteric, and extrasphincteric. An anal fistula can be categorized as either simple or complex. Anal fistula is a chronic abnormal communication between the epithelialised surface of the anal canal and usually the perianal skin. An anal fistula can be described as a narrow tunnel with its internal opening in the anal canal and its external opening in the skin near the anus. Anal fistulae commonly occur in people with a history of anal abscesses. An anal fissure occurs when the mucous lining of the anus becomes torn 1 2. About 80 percent of infants develop these fissures before their first birthdays, according to medline plus 1. In some cases, the fissure is a small crack in the skin, but in other cases the only evidence is blood in the babys diaper or diaper wipe. A rectovaginal fistula is a medical condition where there is a fistula or abnormal connection between the rectum and the vagina. If the opening between the rectum and vagina is wide it will allow both flatulence and feces to escape through the vagina, leading to fecal incontinence. a fistula is an abnormal connection between two epithelialized surfaces, and is lined with granulation tissue. A perineal fistula is one between the intestine and the perineal skin (anal fistula) or between the intestine and the vagina (a colovaginal fistula). Anal fistulae affect 1 in 10,000 of the normal population every year. There are various different types of surgery for anal fistula see the what happens during surgery section below for full details. All types of surgery for anal fistula aim to get rid of the fistula, while causing as little damage to the sphincter muscles around your anus as possible. Anal abscesses are the acute manifestation of a purulent infection in the perirectal area, while anal fistulas are the chronic manifestation of such infections. An anal abscess is a pus-filled cavity that most commonly develops from an infected anal crypt gland following obstruction and bacterial overgrowth. Less common causes for the formation of anorectal abscesses are inflammatory bowel. Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report apa.